Hohensalzburg Castle (German: Festung Hohensalzburg,
literally "High Salzburg Fortress") is a castle, atop the Festungsberg mountain.
Erected at the behest of the Prince-Archbishops of Salzburg, it today with a
length of 250 m (820 ft) and a width of 150 m (490 ft), is one of the largest
medieval castles in Europe.
Construction of the fortress began in 1077 under Archbishop Gebhard von
Helfenstein. This original design was just a basic bailey with a wooden wall. In
the Holy Roman Empire, the Salzburg Archbishops already were powerful political
figures, and they expanded the castle to protect their interests. The fortress
consists of various wings and courtyard. The Prince-Bishop's apartments are
located in the so-called "Hoher Stock" (high floor).
Salzburg Bull - The Kraut Tower (Krautturm) houses a large aerophon of
more than 200 pipes which is called the "Salzburg Bull" (Salzburger Stier). This
huge mechanical organ was built in 1502 by Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach.
It was renewed by Rochus Egedacher in 1735.
Chapel of archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach - The Salzburg archbishop
Leonhard von Keutschach had the chapel built at a later time. One of the figure
consoles in the beam ceiling had to be removed to make room for it. A richly
ornamented star vault decorates the ceiling of the chapel. The inner part of the
door at the entrance is covered with stucco. The painted frame shows red columns
on a high plinth with grey capitals.
Golden Hall - Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach had the magnificent
state apartments installed on the third floor. The state apartments were
primarily used for representative purposes and for festivities. The Golden Hall
was richly decorated and indicates that the fortress served the archbishops not
only as a refuge in times of crisis, but also frequently as a residence up to
the 16th century.
The Golden Chamber - The Golden Chamber is the most magnificently
furnished room of the princely chambers. The two long walls are taken up by
benches that are richly decorated with vines, grapes, foliage and animals. These
benches used to be covered with cloth or leather, but the upholstery has not
survived into the modern age.
Bedchamber of the Prince Bishop - The bedchamber is the most intimate
room of the princely chambers. The original furniture and precious textiles,
such as tapestry, were in the course of time replaced by more "modern" ones. The
elaborate wainscoting to keep out the cold still bears witness to the splendor
of the past.